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Mount and Unmount Filesystems in Linux with Examples
In Linux, you can attach a file system or removable drive using
mount command while you can detach a filesystem using
unmount command. The mount command attaches the filesystem to the existing filesystem. The unmount command first completes any read, write operation running then safely unmounts the filesystem. In this tutorial, you are going to learn how to Mount and Unmount Filesystems in Linux with Examples.
Basic Syntax of mount Command
Following is the basic syntax for the mount command in Linux.
mount [OPTION/S] DEVICE_NAME DIRECTORY_NAME
OPTION: Options that should be used with mount command listed here.
DEVICE_NAME: Name of the filesystem to attach.
DIRECTORY_NAME: The related directory to which filesystem will attach.
The mount command auto detects filesystems in case of some filesystems but some filesystems are not supported. To specify file system with mount command you can use
-t option like given below:
In the following example filesystem device
ext4 filesystem will mount to
mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 /mnt/media
To specify filesystem independent options you should use
-o options with mount command as given in the following example:
mount LABEL=newdisk -o noatime,nodev,nosuid
You can check all options available with mount command by running
List all Mounted Filesystems
You can list all the mounted filesystems including virtual filesystem. you can run the following command in the terminal to do so:
The above command will list all the filesystem including sysfs, proc, devtmpfs, cgroup. cgroup2 etc. virtual filesystems.
To print only
sysfs filesystems you can run
mount command with
-t option like given below:
mount -t sysfs
The output should look like:
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
Mounting USB Drive
To mount USB drive in the Linux systems you should create a directory for mount point then mount the USB drive to it.
/media/usb by using
sudo mkdir -p /media/usb
You can use
fdisk-l command to check the device name of the USB drive:
The output should be:
NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 931.5G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 500M 0 part ├─sda2 8:2 0 100.1G 0 part ├─sda3 8:2 0 100.1G 0 part ├─sda4 8:4 0 1K 0 part ├─sda5 8:5 0 220G 0 part ├─sda6 8:6 0 220G 0 part └─sda7 8:7 0 220G 0 part /run/media/linux4one/Local Disk G sdb 8:16 1 29.3G 0 disk └─sdb1 8:17 1 29.3G 0 part sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom
As given in the above output the USB drive name is
sdb1. Now to mount USB drive you can use the following command:
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /media/usb
Mount Filesystems Specified in /etc/fstab
/etc/fstab file contains the list of filesystems to be mounted during the booting process. To check the filesystems specified in
/etc/fstab, run below command:
In some situations, you can unmount some partitions specified in
/etc/fstab. So if you want to mount all the partitions specified in
/etc/fstab you can run the following command:
And for unmounting all the file systems specified in
/etc/fstab you can run following command:
Mount ISO Files
To mount ISO file you should use a loop device which makes the file accessible as a block device. You can mount ISO file by using the following type of command:
sudo mount ISO_IMAGE_PATH DIRECTORY_NAME -o loop
So First create a mount point directory by using the following command:
sudo mkdir -p /mnt/iso
Now to mount
imagename.iso file you can run the following command, while you should replace
/path/to/imagename.iso with actual ISO file path:
sudo mount /path/to/imagename.iso /mnt/iso
Mount NFS Filesystem
NFS client package enables it to mount NFS filesystem. NFS client package is by default installed on most of the Linux systems. If it’s not on your system install it running the folloiwng command:
For Ubuntu or Debian Based Linux Distros:
sudo apt install nfs-common
For CentOS system:
sudo yum install nfs-utils
Install NFS client package on Fedora system:
sudo dnf install nfs-utils
Now create a mount point directory using the following command:
sudo mkdir -p /media/nfs
/etc/fstab to automatically mount NFS filesystem after booting:
sudo nano /etc/fstab
Paste following code replacing
remote.server:/dir with your NFS server Hostname or IP address:
# <file system> <dir> <type> <options> <dump> <pass> remote.server:/dir /media/nfs nfs defaults 0 0
Run the following command to mount NFS drive:
sudo mount /mnt/nfs
Following is the basic syntax for
unmount command in Linux. By using unmount command you can detach the filesystem.
unmount OPTIONS DEVICE_NAME_OR_DIRECTORY_NAME
To unmount USB drive
/dev/sdb1 you can run following command in terminal:
If the device is busy then above command will not work. You should run the following command to check which processes are working on the device:
fuser -m /mnt/usb
Once you get processes, just kill them and run
unmount command again.
You can also unmount USB drive safely using
-l (–lazy) option with unmount command. It will wait until the device is in a busy state, then it will unmount the device. It is also known as Lazy Unmount.
unmount -l /dev/sdb1
Here you have successfully learned How to Mount and Unmount Filesystems in Linux with Examples. If you have any queries regarding this then please don’t forget to comment below.